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In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass poetry, " Jabberwocky ", whose reversed printing she can read only by holding it up to the mirror. She also observes that the chess pieces have come to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up. Chapter Two — The Garden of Live Flowers : Upon leaving the house where it had been a cold, snowy night , she enters a sunny spring garden where the flowers can speak; they perceive Alice as being a "flower that can move about".
Elsewhere in the garden, Alice meets the Red Queen , who is now human-sized, and who impresses Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speeds. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White Queen's pawns , and begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train that jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank, thus acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move.
She arrives in a forest where a depressed gnat teaches her about the looking glass insects, strange creatures part bug part object e. Alice continues her journey and along the way, crosses the "wood where things have no names". There she forgets all nouns, including her own name. With the help of a fawn who has also forgotten his identity, she makes it to the other side, where they both remember everything. Realizing that he is a fawn, she is a human, and that fawns are afraid of humans, it runs off to Alice's frustration. Chapter Four — Tweedledum and Tweedledee : She then meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee , whom she knows from the nursery rhyme.
After reciting the long poem " The Walrus and the Carpenter ", they draw Alice's attention to the Red King —loudly snoring away under a nearby tree—and maliciously provoke her with idle philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red King's dreams. Finally, the brothers begin suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the nursery rhyme about them predicts.
Chapter Five — Wool and Water : Alice next meets the White Queen , who is very absent-minded but boasts of and demonstrates her ability to remember future events before they have happened. Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing over a brook together, but at the very moment of the crossing, the Queen transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, where the Sheep annoys her with seemingly nonsensical shouting about " crabs " and " feathers ".
Chapter Six — Humpty Dumpty : After crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank, Alice immediately encounters Humpty Dumpty , who, besides celebrating his unbirthday , provides his own translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky". In the process, he introduces Alice to the concept of portmanteau words, before his inevitable fall. Chapter Seven — The Lion and the Unicorn : "All the king's horses and all the king's men" come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance, and are accompanied by the White King , along with the Lion and the Unicorn , who again proceed to act out a nursery rhyme by fighting with each other.
In this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of " Anglo-Saxon messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta". Chapter Eight — "It's my own Invention" : Upon leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight, Alice reaches the seventh rank by crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight, who is intent on capturing the "white pawn"—Alice—until the White Knight comes to her rescue.
Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing, the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition called Haddocks' Eyes , and repeatedly falls off his horse. Chapter Nine — Queen Alice : Bidding farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook, and is automatically crowned a queen, with the crown materialising abruptly on her head. She soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens, who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion.
They then invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice—of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge. Chapter Ten — Shaking : Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party, which quickly turns into chaos. Alice finally grabs the Red Queen, believing her to be responsible for all the day's nonsense, and begins shaking her. Chapter Eleven — Waking : Alice awakes in her armchair to find herself holding the black kitten, who she deduces to have been the Red Queen all along, with the white kitten having been the White Queen.
Chapter Twelve — Which dreamed it? The book ends with the line "Life, what is it but a dream? The themes and settings of Through the Looking-Glass make it a kind of mirror image of Wonderland : the first book begins outdoors, in the warm month of May 4 May , [a] uses frequent changes in size as a plot device , and draws on the imagery of playing cards; the second opens indoors on a snowy, wintry night exactly six months later, on 4 November the day before Guy Fawkes Night , [b] uses frequent changes in time and spatial directions as a plot device, and draws on the imagery of chess.
In it, there are many mirror themes, including opposites, time running backwards, and so on. The White Queen offers to hire Alice as her lady's maid and to pay her "Twopence a week, and jam every other day.
The rule is, jam tomorrow and jam yesterday—but never jam to-day. Jam is therefore never available today.
Whereas the first book has the deck of playing cards as a theme, Through the Looking-Glass is based on a game of chess, played on a giant chessboard with fields for squares. Most of the main characters are represented by a chess piece, with Alice being a pawn. The looking-glass world is divided into sections by brooks or streams, with the crossing of each brook usually signifying a change in the scene, and corresponding to Alice advancing by one square. The sequence of moves white and red is not always followed.
Lewis Carroll decided to suppress a scene involving what was described as "a wasp in a wig" possibly a play on the commonplace expression "bee in the bonnet". It has been suggested in a biography by Carroll's nephew, Stuart Dodgson Collingwood, that one of the reasons for this suppression was a suggestion from his illustrator, John Tenniel,  who wrote in a letter to Carroll dated 1 June I am bound to say that the 'wasp' chapter doesn't interest me in the least, and I can't see my way to a picture.
If you want to shorten the book, I can't help thinking — with all submission — that there is your opportunity. For many years no one had any idea what this missing section was or whether it had survived.
Through the Looking Glass Study Guide
In , a document purporting to be the galley proofs of the missing section was sold at Sotheby's ; the catalogue description read, in part, that "The proofs were bought at the sale of the author's Oxford, The bid was won by John Fleming, a Manhattan book dealer.
The rediscovered section describes Alice's encounter with a wasp wearing a yellow wig, and includes a full previously unpublished poem. If included in the book, it would have followed, or been included at the end of, Chapter 8 — the chapter featuring the encounter with the White Knight. The discovery is generally accepted as genuine, but the proofs have yet to receive any physical examination to establish age and authenticity. The book has been adapted several times, in combination with Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and as a stand-alone film or television special.
The adaptations include live , TV musicals , live action and animated versions and radio adaptations. This production restored the lost "Wasp in a Wig" episode.
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Adaptations combined with Alice's Adventures in Wonderland include the live-action movie Alice in Wonderland , starring a huge all-star cast and Charlotte Henry in the role of Alice. It featured most of the elements from Through the Looking Glass as well, including W. The animated Disney movie Alice in Wonderland also features several elements from Through the Looking-Glass , including the talking flowers, Tweedledee and Tweedledum, and "The Walrus and the Carpenter". Combined stage productions include the version, produced and written by Elizabeth Swados , Alice in Concert aka Alice at the Palace , performed on a bare stage.
Alice was played in both parts by Laura Wickham. It is not ideology that drives our unrelenting advocacy for sustainability and scale in development. And to make matters worse: complexity sells better. For more information, see Conroy, K. Indeed the key principles of the MSD approach apply to good development practice more generally, and should therefore be used more widely.
I also find that the MSD approach speaks to the actual experience of practitioners new to the approach while it has a clear inner logic, which makes it intuitively attractive and easily accessible. I agree that its difficulties appear when applying it in practice. Maybe not because it is more difficult per se, but partly because it requires a different set of skills than we have in the development business generally.
Key constraints are found in the circumstance that the whole sector — funders and implementers — is schooled in a different approach, which has been practiced for decades and permeates our thinking, culture, behavioral rules and organisations. Indeed, change is taking place, even if only slowly, and is maybe easier in small consultancies and NGOs than large donor and UN organisations.
Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There by Lewis Carroll
It takes committment and personal engagement of course as well as overcoming resistance to change, which is a human trait. Doing business as usual certainly gives you a more comfortable life. A final reflection acknowledges that the MSD approach maybe is more difficult, at least more demanding. Applying it in practice seems to require more of using your own professional judgement, to actively think, analyse and judge for yourself as a facilitator, continously, over and over again. This in turn requires that you trust in and rely on your own judgement — self confidence.
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Of course, you can expect to build this over time, but it certainly takes more than relying on a blueprint or adhering to a plan. This points to the importance of leadership and coaching support as well as team building, close and regular interaction, joint sharing of experiences and reflection. Why would we do something differently or keep doing the same thing? And do we have the skills, institutional structures and support to change if we want to? We need to want to change, for whatever reasons, and be able to. Thanks for engaging.
Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Programming adaptively requires measuring results in real time, adjusting assumptions and actions to respond to changing contexts — but is there really any excuse for the alternative? Download PDF.
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